List of state leaders in the 18th century

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Lists of state leaders by century:
See also:
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Timelines:
State leaders:
Decades:
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

This is a list of state leaders in the 18th century (1701–1800) AD, except for the leaders within the Holy Roman Empire, and the leaders within British south Asia and its predecessor states.

These polities are generally sovereign states, but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 18th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

Africa[edit]

Central[edit]

Angola

  • Kiluanje kya Ngonga, King (c.1690s–1700s)
  • Kinguri kya Kasombe, King (c.1700s)
  • Kitumba kya Kalunga, King (c.1710s)
  • Kambamba ka Kinguri, King (c.1720s)
  • Kasanje ka Kiluanje, King (c.1730s)
  • Lubame lwa Kipungo, King (c.1739–1750s)
  • Ngunza a Kambamba, King (c.1750–1770)
  • Lukala lwa Njinje, King (early 1770s)
  • Kalunga ka Luhame, King (mid 1770s)
  • Kitumba kya Wanga, King (late 1770s–early 1780s)
  • Kisweya kya Kambamba, King (1780s)
  • Kitamba kya Shiba, King (c.1785–1792)
  • Malenge a Ngonga, King (1792–c.1810)
Colony, 1575–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Cameroon

Central African Republic

Chad

  • ‘Abdul Qadir I, Mbangi (1680–1707)
  • Bar, Mbangi (1707–1722)
  • Wanja, Mbangi (1722–1736)
  • Burkomanda II Tad Lele, Mbangi (1736–1741)
  • Loel, Mbangi (1741–1751)
  • Hajji Mohammed al'Amin, Mbangi (1751–1785)
  • ‘Abd ar-Rahman Gawrang, Mbangi (1785–1806)
  • Muhammad Salih Derret ibn Jawda, Kolak (1795–1803)

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

  • KotomBoke, Nyim (17th or 18th century)
  • Golo Shanga, Nyim (18th century)
  • Misha Mishanga Shanga, Nyim (18th century)
  • Bokare Che, Nyim (18th century)
  • Bushabun Che, Nyim (18th century)
  • Koto Che, Nyim (18th century)
  • Misha Pelenge Che, Nyim (18th century)
  • Bope Pelenge, Nyim (18th century)
  • Kata Mbula, Nyim (1776–1810)

Congo, Republic of the

Equatorial Guinea

Colony, 1778–1968
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Gabon

São Tomé and Príncipe

Colony, 1470–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

East[edit]

Great Lakes area

Burundi
Kenya
Rwanda
South Sudan
  • Tugø, Rädh (c.1690–1710)
  • Nyokwejø, Rädh (c.1780–1820)
Tanzania
Uganda

Horn of Africa area

Djibouti
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Solomonic dynasty
Zemene Mesafint
  • Leliso, Tato (1690–1720)
  • Wako, Tato (1720–1740)
  • Malko, Tato (1740–1760)
  • Gabito, Tato (1760–1780)
  • Chaso, usurper Tato, (1780–1790)
  • Dukamo, Tato (1790–1845)
  • Mijyu, Moti (?–c.1820)
  • Abba Manno, Moti (c.1820–c.1840)
  • Adam, Moti, Founder (late 18th century)
  • Oncho, Moti (c.1795)
  • Ṭalḥa ibn ʿAbdullah, Emīr (1700–1721)
  • Abūbakar ibn ʿAbdullah, Emīr (1721–1732)
  • Khalaf ibn Abūbakar, Emīr (1732–1733)
  • Ḥāmid ibn Abūbakar, Emīr (1733–1747)
  • Yūsuf ibn Abūbakar, Emīr (1747–1755)
  • Aḥmed ibn Abūbakar, Emīr (1755–1782)
  • Maḥamed ibn Yūsuf, Emīr (1782–1783)
  • `Abd al-Shakur ibn Yusuf, Emīr (1783–1794)
  • Ahmad II ibn Muhammad, Emīr (1794–1821)
  • Gali Ginocho or Tan Ginok, King (1675–1710)
  • Gaki Gaocho or Otti Sheroch, King (1710–1742)
  • Gali Gaocho or Kanechoch, King (1742–1775)
  • Shagi Sherocho or Gali Keffoch, King (1775–1795)
  • Beshi Ginocho or Kaye Sheroch, King (1795–1798)
  • Hoti Gaocho or Beshi Sheroch, King (1798–1821)
  • Kote, Kawa (18th century)
  • Libana, Kawa (18th century)
  • Tube, Kawo (?–1761)
  • Ogatto, Kawa (1761–1800)
  • Amado, Kawa (1800–1835)
Somalia
  • Garaad Naleye, Sultan (1675–1705)
  • Garaad Mohamed, Sultan (1705–1750)
  • Garaad Ali, Sultan (1750–1789)
  • Garaad Mohamud Ali, Sultan (1789–1830)

Indian Ocean

Comoros
Madagascar
  • Andriamandisoarivo (Tsimanata), King (c.1690–1720)
  • Andrianamboniarivo (Toakafa), King (c.1720–1730)
  • Andriamahatindriarivo, King (c.1730–1760)
  • Andrianahilitsy, King (c.1760–1767)
  • Andrianiveniarivo, King (1767–1770)
  • Andrianihoatra, King (1770–1771)
  • Andrianikeniarivo, King (1771–1777)
  • Andrianaginarivo, Queen (1777–1778)
  • Tombola, Queen (1778)
  • Ravahiny, Queen (c.1778–1808)
Mauritius
French colony, 1715–1810
For details see France under western Europe
Seychelles

Northcentral[edit]

Libya

Tunisia

Northeast[edit]

Egypt

Sudan

  • Muhammad wad Jayli, Mukūk (c.1750)
  • Umar I–1783, Mukūk (?–1783)
  • Ismail I, Mukūk (1783–1800)
  • Abakr I, Mukūk (1800–1820)

Northwest[edit]

Algeria

Vassal state, 1671–1830

Morocco

South[edit]

Botswana

Eswatini/ Swaziland

Lesotho

Malawi

Mozambique

Colony, 1498–1972
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Namibia

  • Shimwemwe, ruler (1785–1805)

South Africa

(1700s–1897)
British occupation, 1795–1803
British colony, 1795–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Zambia

Zimbabwe

returns to Rozwi vassalage (1712)
independent of Rozwi (1720)
  • Changamire Negamo, King (c.1700–1710)
  • Chirisamuru, King (c.1712–1788)
  • Changamire Dhafa, King (c.1790–1824)

West[edit]

Benin

  • Ore-Oghene, Oba (1689–1701)[13]
  • Ewuakpe, Oba (1701–1712)
  • Ozuere, Oba (1712–1713)
  • Akenzua I, Oba (1713–1740)
  • Eresoyen, Oba (1740–1750)
  • Akengbuda, Oba (1750–1804)
Vassal of the Oyo Empire, 1740–1823
  • Ajibolu, Oba (1795–1816)

Burkina Faso

  • Famaghan Wattara, ruler (1714–1729)
  • Famaghan dan Tyeba, ruler (1729–1742)
  • Kere Massa Wattara, ruler (1742–1749)
  • Magan Wule Wattara, ruler (1749–1809)
  • Brahima bi Saydu, Ja-oro (1758–1810)
  • Lissoangui, Nunbado (1684–1709)
  • Yendabri, Nunbado (1709–c.1736)
  • Yembrima, Nunbado (1736–1791)
  • Baahamma, Nunbado (1791–1822)
  • Naaba Dulugu, Moogo-naaba (1783–1802)
  • Naaba Yadega, Yatenga naaba (c.18th century)
  • Naaba Yolomfaogoma, Yatenga naaba (c.18th century)
  • Naaba Kourita, Yatenga naaba (18th century)
  • Naaba Geda, Yatenga naaba (18th century)
  • Naaba Wobgho I, Yatenga naaba (18th century)
  • Naaba Kango, Yatenga naaba (1754–1787)
  • Rima Naaba Saaga, Yatenga naaba (1787–1803)

Cape Verde

Colony, 1462–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Gambia

Ghana

Guinea

Guinea-Bissau

Colony, 1474–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Ivory Coast

  • Biri Kofi Panyin, Gyaamanhene (?–1720)
  • Abo Kofi, Gyaamanhene (1720–1746)
  • Kofi Sono, Gyaamanhene (1746–1760)
  • Agyeman, Gyaamanhene (1760–1790)
  • Biri Kofi Kadyo, Gyaamanhene (1790–1810)

Liberia

Mali

Mauritania

Niger

  • Mallam, Sultan (1731–1746)
  • Baba dan Mallam, Sultan (1746–1757)
  • Tanimoun Babani, Sultan (1757–1775)
  • Assafa dan Tanimoun, Sultan (1775–1782)
  • Abaza dan Tanimoun, Sultan (1782–1787)
  • Mallam Babou Saba, Sultan (1787–1790)
  • Daouda dan Tanimoun, Sultan (1790–1799)
  • Ahmadou dan Tanimoun, Sultan (1799–1812)
  • El Hadjj Hanga, Askiya (?–1761)[18]
  • Samsou-Béri, Askiya (1761–1779)
  • Hargani, Askiya (1779–1793)
  • Samsou Keïna, Askiya (1793–1798)
  • Fodi Maÿroumfa, Askiya (1798–1805)
  • Zarmakoy Aboubacar, King (c.1750–?)
  • Zarmakoy Laouzo, King (?)

Nigeria

  • Ekpenyong Offiong Okoho, King (1786–1805)

The following were the independent rulers of Okoloama.[20]

  • Awusa "Halliday", King (1759–1760)
  • Perekule I, King (1760–?)
  • Fubara Manilla Pepple, King (?–1792)
  • Opubo Annie Pepple the Great, King (1792–1828)
  • Bawa, Sultan (1777–1795)
  • Yakubu, Sultan (1795–1801)
  • Mingi I, King (1745–1766)
  • Ikata Mingi II, King (1766–1788)
  • Gboro Mingi III, King (1788–1800)
  • Kuko Mingi IV, King (1800–1832)
  • Muhammadu Dan Ayi dan Ahmadu Jerabana Albishir, Emir (1799–1829)

Senegal

  • Lat Sukabe, Damel (1697–1719)
  • Isa-Tende, Damel (1719–1748)
  • Isa Bige, Damel (1748–1749)
  • Ma-Bathio Samb, Damel (1749–1757)
  • Birima Kodu, Damel (1757–1758)
  • Isa Bige, Damel (1758–1759)
  • Birima Yamb, Damel (1759–1760)
  • Isa Bige Nagone, Damel (1760–1763)
  • Jor Yasin Isa, Damel (1763–1766)
  • Kodu Kumba, Damel (1766–1777)
  • Birima Fatim-Penda, Damel (1777–1790)
  • Amari Ngone Ndèla Kumba Fal, Damel (1790–1809)
  • Naatago Aram Bakar, King (1674–1708)
  • Njak Aram Bakar Teedyek, King (1708–1733)
  • Yerim Nadate Bubu, King (1733–1734)
  • Meu Mbody Kumba Khedy, King (1734–1735)
  • Yerim Khode Fara Mboj, King (1735–1736)
  • Njak Xuri Yop, King (1736–1780)
  • Fara Penda Teg Rel, King (1780–c.1795)
  • Njak Kumba Xuri Yay Mboj, King (1795–1805)[29]

Sierra Leone

  • Naimbanna I, Bai (1680–1720)
  • Naimbanna II, Bai (1720–1793)
  • Farima IV, Bai (1793–1807)

Togo

Americas[edit]

Caribbean[edit]

Antigua

British colony, 1632–1981
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

The Bahamas

British colony, 1648–1973
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Barbados

British colony, 1625–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Cuba

Spanish Colony, 1607–1898
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Dominica

French Colony, 1715–1763
For details see France in western Europe
British Colony, 1763–1978
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

British Colony, 1763–1979
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Haiti

French Colony, 1625–1804
For details see France in western Europe

Netherlands

Dutch colony 1634–1828, 1845–1954
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe

Saint Lucia

French colony, 1762–1802
For details see France in western Europe

Trinidad and Tobago

British colony, 1797–1962
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Central[edit]

Belize

British colony, 1749–1862
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Guatemala

Spanish Colony, 1609–1821
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Nicaragua

North[edit]

Canada

French colony, 1535–1763
For details see France under western Europe
British colony, 1610–1907
British colony, 1763–1791
British colony, 1791–1841
British colony, 1791–1841
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Mexico

Spanish Colony, 1521–1821
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

United States

  • Little Turkey, First Beloved Man (1788–1794), Principal Chief (1794–1801)

South[edit]

Argentina

Spanish Colony, 1776–1814
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Brazil

Portuguese colony, 1500/1534–1808
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Chile

Spanish Colony, 1541–1818
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Colombia

Spanish Colony, 1717–1723, 1739–1810, 1815–1821
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Peru

Spanish Colony, 1542–1824
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Suriname

English/ British colony, 1650–1667
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Dutch colony 1667–1954
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe

Asia[edit]

Central[edit]

Kazakhstan

  • Tauke, Khan (1680–1718)

Tajikistan

Tibet

Manchu overlordship, 1720–1912
For details see the Qing dynasty under Eastern Asia

Uzbekistan

  • Subhan Quli, Khan (1680–1702)[44][45][46]
  • Ubaidullah, Khan (1702–1711)
  • Abu'l-Faiz, Khan (1711–1747)
  • Muhammad Abd al-Mumin, Khan (1747–1748)
  • Muhammad Ubaidullah II, Khan (1748–1753, nominal)
  • Muhammad Rahim (usurper), atalik (1753–1756), Khan (1756–1758)
  • Shir Ghazi, Khan (1758-?)
  • Abu'l Ghazi, Khan (1758–1785)
  • Ishaq Agha Shah Niyaz, Khan (1698–1701)
  • Awrang II, Khan (1701–1702)
  • rShakhbakht Khan, Khan (1702-03)
  • Sayyid Ali Khan, Khan (1703)
  • Musa, Khan (1702–1712)
  • Yadigar I, Khan (1712–1713)
  • Awrang III, Khan (c.1713–c.1714)
  • Haji Muhammad II, Khan (c.1714)
  • Shir Ghazi, Khan (1714–1727)
  • Sarigh Ayghir, Khan (1727)
  • Bahadur, Khan (1727–1728)
  • Ilbars II, Khan (1728–1740)
  • Tahir, Khan (1740–1742)
  • Nurali I, Khan (1742)
  • Abu Muhammad, Khan (1742)
  • Abu al-Ghazi II Muhammad, Khan (1742–1747)
  • Ghaib, Khan (Kaip Khan), Khan (1747–1758)
  • Abdullah Qara Beg, Khan (1758)
  • Timur Ghazi, Khan (1758–1764)
  • Tawke, Khan (1764–1766)
  • Shah Ghazi, Khan (1766–1768)
  • Abu al-Ghazi III, Khan (1768–1769)
  • Nurali II, Khan (1769)
  • Jahangir, Khan (1769–1770)
  • Bölekey, Khan (1770)
  • Aqim, Khan (1770–1771, c.1772–c.1773)
  • Abd al-Aziz, Khan (c.1771)
  • Artuq Ghazi, Khan (c.1772)
  • Abdullah, Khan (c.1772)
  • Aqim, Khan (1770–1771, c.1772–c.1773)
  • Yadigar II, Khan (c.1773–1775, 1779–1781, 1783–1790)
  • Abu'l Fayz, Khan (1775–1779)
  • Yadigar II, Khan (c.1773–1775, 1779–1781, 1783–1790)
  • Pulad Ghazi, Khan (1781–1783)
  • Yadigar II, Khan (c.1773–1775, 1779–1781, 1783–1790)
  • Abu al-Ghazi IV, Khan (1790–1802)
  • Ayuka, Khan (1672–1723)
  • Tseren Donduk, Khan (1723–1735)
  • Donduk Ombo, Khan (1735–1741)
  • Donduk Dashi, Khan (1741–1761)
  • Ubashi, Khan (1761–1771)
  • Dodbi, Khan (1771–1781)
  • As Saray, Khan (1781)

East[edit]

China: Qing dynasty

Japan

Vassal state of Satsuma Domain, 1609–1872

Korea

Southeast[edit]

Brunei

Cambodia

Indonesia

Dutch colony 1800–1811, 1816–1949
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe
Indonesia: Java
  • Abdul Mahasin Muhammad Zainulabidin, Sultan (1690–1733)[47]
  • Abdul Fatah Muhammad Syafei, Sultan (1733–1748)
  • Ratu Sarifah Fatima, Regent (1748–1750)
  • Abu’lma’ali Muhammad Wasi al-Halimin, Sultan (1750–1753)
  • Abu Nazar Muhammad Arif Zainal Asyekin, Sultan (1753–1777)
  • Abdul Mofakhir Muhammad Aliuddin I, Sultan (1777–1802)
  • Pangeran Putr, King (1697–1736)
  • Danuningrat, King (1736–1763)
  • Pangeran Wilis, King (1767–1768)
  • Pangeran Arya Cirebon, Kamaruddin, Sultan (1697–1723)
  • Cirebon I Muhammad Akbaruddin, Sultan (1723–1734)
  • Cirebon II Muhammad Salihuddin, Sultan (1734–1758)
  • Cirebon III Muhammad Harruddin, Sultan (1758–1768)[48]
  • Sepuh II Jamaluddin, Sultan (1697–1723)[49]
  • Sepuh III Muhammad Zainuddin, Sultan (1723–1753)
  • Sepuh IV Muhammad Zainuddin, Sultan (1753–1773)
  • Sepuh V Sapiuddin, Sultan (1773–1786)
  • Sepuh VI, Sultan (1786–1791)
  • Sepuh VII Joharuddin, Sultan (1791–1816)
  • Anom I Badruddin, Sultan (1662–1703)[49]
  • Anom II, Sultan (1703–1706)
  • Anom III Muhammad Alimuddin, Sultan (1719–1732)
  • Anom IV Khairuddin, Sultan (1744–1797)
  • Anom V Imanuddin, Sultan (1797–1807)
  • Panembahan Cirebon I Muhammad Nasruddin, Sultan (1662–1714)[49]
  • Panembahan Cirebon II Muhammad Muhyiddin, Sultan (1725–1731)
  • Panembahan Cirebon III Muhammad Tair Yarini Sabirin, Sultan (1752–1773)
  • Pangeran Arya Cirebon, Kamaruddin, Sultan (1697–1723)[49]
  • Cirebon I Muhammad Akbaruddin, Sultan (1723–1734)
  • Cirebon II Muhammad Salihuddin, Sultan (1734–1758)
  • Cirebon III Muhammad Harruddin, Sultan (1758–1768)
  • Cakraningrat II, Sultan (1648–1707)[50]
  • Cakraningrat III, Sultan (1707–1718)
  • Cakraningrat IV, Sultan (1718–1745)
  • Cakraningrat V, Sultan (1745–1770)
  • Cakraningrat VI, Sultan (1770–1780)
  • Cakraningrat VII, Sultan (1780–1815)
Split into Surakarta and Yogyakarta
  • Pulang Jiwa, Sultan (1684–1702)[51]
  • Cakranegara I, Sultan (1702–1705)
  • Suderma, Sultan (1705–1707)
  • Cakranegara II, Sultan (1707–1737)
  • Cakranegara III, Sultan (1737–1750)
  • Bendara Saud, Sultan (1750–1767)
  • Tirtanegara, Sultan (1767–1811)
  • Adikara I, Sultan (1685–1708)[52]
  • Adikara II, Sultan (1708–1737)
  • Adikara III, Sultan (1737–1743)
  • Adikara IV, Sultan (1743–1750)
  • Adiningrat, Sultan (1750–1752)
  • Aria Cakraadiningrat I, R. Alsari, Sultan (1752–1800)
  • Aria Cakraadiningrat II, R. Alsana, Sultan (1800–1804)
  • Surapati, Wiranegara I, Sultan (1686–1706)[53]
  • Wiranegara II, Sultan (1706–1707)
Indonesia: Sumatra
  • Tuanku Panglima Paderap, Sultan (1698–1728)
  • Tuanku Panglima Pasutan, Sultan (1728–1761)
  • Tuanku Panglima Gandar Wahid, Sultan (1761–1805)
  • Bendahara Raja Badiuzzaman, Raja (1673–1750)
  • Kejuruan Hitam (Tuah Hitam), Raja (1750–1818)
  • Abdul Jalil Rahmad Shah I, Sultan (1725–1746)
  • Abdul Jalil Rahmad Shah II, Sultan (1746–1765)
  • Abdul Jalil Jalaluddin Shah, Sultan (1765–1766)
  • Abdul Jalil Alamuddin Shah, Sultan (1766–1780)
  • Muhammad Ali Abdul Jalil Muazzam Shah, Sultan (1780–1782)
  • Yahya Abdul Jalil Muzaffar Shah, Sultan (1782–1784)
  • Al-Sayyid al-Sharif Ali Abdul Jalil Syaifuddin Ba'alawi, Sultan (1784–1810)
  • Kejeruan Junjungan, Raja (1728–1782)
  • Al-Marhum Kacapuri, Raja (1782–1822)
  • Daeng Marewah, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1722–1728)
  • Daeng Chelak, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1728–1745)
  • Daeng Kemboja, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1745–1777)
  • Haji, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1777–1784)
  • Ali, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1784–1805)
  • Jambi Sultanate
    Sultan Sri Maharaja Batu, Sultan (1690–1721)
    Ahmad Zainuddin/ Anom Sri Ingalaga, Sultan (1770–1790)
    Ratu Seri Ingalaga, Sultan (1790–1812)
Indonesia: Kalimantan (Borneo)
  • Tahmidullah I, Sultan (1700–1717)
  • Panembahan Kasuma Dilaga, Sultan (1717–1730)
  • Hamidullah, Sultan (1730–1734)
  • Tamjidullah I, Sultan (1734–1759)
  • Muhammadillah/Muhammad Aliuddin Aminullah, Sultan (1759–1761)
  • Tahmidullah II/Sultan Nata, Sultan (1761–1801)
  • Digendung, putra Wira Keranda, Wira (1695–1731)
  • Amir, Putera Wira Digendung Gelar Sultan Amiril Mukminin, Wira (1731–1777)
  • Aji Muhammad, Sultan (1777–1817)
  • Aji Muhammad Idris, Sultan (c.1732–1739)
  • Aji Muhammad Muslihuddin, Sultan (1780s)
  • Luo Fangbo, President (1777–1795)
  • Jiang Wubo, President (1795–1799)
  • Yan Sibo, President (1799–1804)
  • Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie, Sultan (1771–1808)
  • Muhammad Taj ud-din I, Sultan (1685–1708)
  • Umar Aqam ud-din I, Sultan (1708–1732)
  • Abu Bakar Kamal ud-din I, Sultan (1732–1764)
  • Umar Akam ud-din II, Sultan (1764–1786)
  • Achmad Taj ud-din II, Sultan (1786–1793)
  • Abu Bakar Taj ud-din I, Sultan (1793–1815)
  • Sri Paduka Muhammad Shams ud-din Sa'id ul-Khairiwaddien Sultan Nata, Sultan (1672–1738)
  • Sri Paduka 'Abdu'l Rahman Muhammad Jalal ud-din ibni al-Marhum Muhammad Shams ud-din Sa'id ul-Khairiwaddien Aman, Sultan (1738–1786)
  • Sri Paduka 'Abdu'l Rashid Muhammad Jamal ud-din ibni al-Marhum 'Abdu'l Rahman Muhammad Jalal ud-din Ajib, Sultan (1786–1796)
  • Sri Paduka Muhammad Qamar ud-din ibni al-Marhum Sultan 'Abdu'l Rashid Muhammad Jamal ud-din, Sultan (1796–1851)
Indonesia: Sulawesi
  • Abdul Jalil, Sultan (1677–1709)
  • Ismail, Sultan (1709–1711)
  • Sirajuddin, Sultan (1711–?)
  • Najamuddin, Sultan (18th century)
  • Sirajuddin, Sultan (1735–1735)
  • Abdul Khair, Sultan (1735–1742)
  • Abdul Kudus, Sultan (1742–1753)
  • Amas Madina Batara Gowa, Sultan (1753–1767)
  • I Mallisujawa Daeng Riboko Arungmampu, Sultan (1767–1769)
  • Zainuddin, Sultan (1770–1778)
  • I Manawari Karaeng Bontolangkasa, Sultan (1778–1810)
  • Settiaraja, Datu (1663–1704)
  • La Onro Topalaguna, Datu (1704–1715)
  • Batari Tungke, Datu (1706–1715)
  • Batari Tojang, Datu (1715–1748)
  • We Tenri Leleang, Datu (1748–1778)
  • Tosibengngareng, Datu (1760–1765)
  • La Tenri Peppang, Datu (1778–1810)
Indonesia: Lesser Sunda Islands
  • Domingos Viera, Raja (c.1702)
  • Hasanuddin Muhammad Ali Syah, Sultan (1697–1731)
  • Alauddin Muhammad Syah, Sultan (1731–1748)
  • Kamalat Syah, Sultan (1748–1751)
  • Abdul Kadim Muhammad Syah, Sultan (1751–1773)
  • Abdul Hamid Muhammad Syah, Sultan (1773–1817)
Indonesia: West Timor
  • Jacinto Correia, Liurai (c.1756)
  • Don Louis Nai Konof, Raja (pre-1751–1766)
  • Don Joan Benao, Raja (1766–?)
  • Dom Affonco, Raja (c.1703)[57]
  • Dom Augusto Fernandes, Raja (c.1703)
  • Nai Soti, Raja (c.1714)
  • Dom Luís Hornay, Raja (pre-1749–1752)
  • Dom Affonco Hornay, Raja (1752–1774)
  • Don Rote Ruatefu, Raja (1774–1802)
  • Ama Kefi Meu, Raja (1666–1704)
  • Ama Kefi, Raja (1704–1725)
  • Loti, Raja (1725–1732)
  • Nai Balas, Raja (1732–1755)
  • Balthazar Loti, Raja (1755–1790)
  • Osu I, Raja (1791–1795)
  • Slolo, Raja (1795–c.1797)
  • Afu Balthazar, Raja (c.1797–pre-1824)
  • Dom Pedro Sonbai/ Tomenu, Emperor (c.1704–1726)[58]
  • Dom Alfonso Salema/ Nai Bau Sonbai, Emperor (pre-1748–1752)
  • Don Bernardo/ Nai Sobe Sonbai I, Emperor (1752–1760)
  • Albertus Johannes Taffy/ Nai Tafin Sonbai, Emperor (1760–1768)
  • Alphonsus Adrianus/ Nai Kau Sonbai, Emperor (1768–1802)
  • Bi Sonbai/ Usi Tetu Utang, Queen (1672–1717)[58]
  • Bernardus Leu, Raja (1717–1726)
  • Corneo Leu, Raja (1728–1748)
  • Daniel Taffy Leu, Raja (1748–1760)
  • Jacobus Albertus Taffy, Raja (1760–1776)
  • Nai Kau Sonbai, Raja (1776–1783)
  • Baki Bena/ Bernardus Nisnoni, Raja (1783–1795)
  • Dirk Hendrik Aulasi, Raja (1795–1798)
  • Nube Bena/ Pieter Nisnoni I, Raja (1798–1820)
  • Don Michel, Raja (pre-1749–1751)
  • Don Louis, Raja (1751–1770)
  • Don Jacobus Albertus, Raja (1770–1786)
  • Tobani, Raja (1786–c.1807)
Indonesia: Maluku Islands
Dutch protectorate 1667–1942
  • Alauddin II, Sultan (1660–1706)[59]
  • Musa Malikuddin, Sultan (1706–1715)
  • Kie Nasiruddin, Sultan (1715–1732)
  • Hamza Tarafan Nur, Sultan (1732–1741)
  • Muhammad Sahaddin, Sultan (1741–1780)
  • Skandar Alam, Sultan (1780–1788)
  • Muhammad Badaruddin, Sultan (1788–1797)
  • Kamarullah, Sultan (1797–1826)
British occupation 1799–1802
  • Muhammad Arif Bila, Sultan (1797–1806)[60]
Dutch protectorate 1657–1905
  • Hamza Faharuddin, Sultan (1689–1705)[61]
  • Abdul Falali Mansur, Sultan (1705–1708)
  • Hasanuddin, Sultan (1708–1728)
  • Amir Muiduddin Malikulmanan, Sultan (1728–1757)
  • Amir Muhammad Masud Jamaluddin, Sultan (1757–1779)
  • Gayjira, Sultan (regent 1779–1780)
  • Patra Alam, Sultan (1780–1783)
  • Hairul Alam Kamaluddin, Sultan (1784–1797)
  • Nuku, Muhammad al-Mabus Amiruddin Syah, Sultan (1797–1805)
Dutch protectorate 1683–1915
  • Said Fathullah, Sultan (1689–1714)
  • Amir Iskandar Zulkarnain Saifuddin, Sultan (1714–1751)
  • Ayan Shah, Sultan (1751–1754)
  • Syah Mardan, Sultan (1755–1763)
  • Jalaluddin, Sultan (1763–1774)
  • Harun Shah, Sultan (1774–1781)
  • Achral, Sultan (1781–1796)
  • Muhammad Yasin, Sultan (1796–1801)

Laos

Vassal to Burma (1765–1768)
  • Ong Boun, King (1767–1778, 1780–1781)
Vassal to Siam (1778–1826)
  • Phraya Supho, Siamese Governor (1778–1780)
  • Ong Boun, King (1767–1778, 1780–1781)
  • Nanthasen, King (1781–1794)
  • Intharavong, King (1795–1805)
  • Kingkitsarat, King (1707–1713)
  • Ong Kham, King (1713–1723)
  • Inthasom, King (1723–1749)
  • Inthaphom, King (1749)
  • Sotika Koumane, King (1749–1771)
Vassal to Burma (1765–1779)
  • Suriyawong, King (1771–1779)
  • Anourouth, King (1791–1817)

Malaysia: Peninsular

Champa dynasty
Patani dynasty
  • Mahmud Iskandar Shah, Sultan (1653–1720)
  • Alauddin Mughayat Shah, Sultan (1720–1728)
  • Muzaffar Riayat Shah III, Sultan of Upper Perak (1728–1752)
  • Muhammad Mughayat Shah, Sultan of Lower Perak (1744–1750)
  • Iskandar Zulkarnain, Sultan (1752–1765)
  • Mahmud Shah II, Sultan (1765–1773)
  • Alauddin Mansur Shah Iskandar Muda, Sultan (1773–1786)
  • Ahmaddin Shah, Sultan (1786–1806)
  • Syed Abu Bakar Harun Jamalullail, Penghulu (1797–1825)[62]

Myanmar / Burma

Philippines

  • Kahar Ud-din Kuda, Sultan (?–1702)
  • Bayan Ul-Anwar, Sultan (1702–1736)
  • Muhammad Tahir Ud-din, Sultan (1736–?)
  • Pakir Maulana Kamsa, Sultan (1734–1755)
  • Pahar Ud-din, Sultan (1755–?)
  • Kibad Sahriyal, Sultan (c.1780–c.1805)
Colony, 1565–1901
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Thailand

  • Thipchang, King (1732–1759)
  • Chaikaeo, Prince (1759–1774)
  • Kawila, Prince of Lampang (1774–1782), King of Chiang Mai (1802–1813)
  • Emas Kelantan, Raja (1690–1704 or 1670–1698)
  • Emas Chayam, Queen (1704–1707 or 1698–1702 and 1716–1718)
  • Dewi, Raja (1707–1716)
  • Bendang Badan, Raja (1716–1720 or ?–1715)
  • Laksamana Dajang, Raja (1720–1721)
  • Alung Yunus, Raja (1718/28–1729)
  • Yunus, Raja (1729–1749)
  • Long Nuh, Raja (1749–1771)
  • Muhammad, Sultan (1771–1785)
  • Tengku Lamidin, ruler (1785–1791)
  • Datuk Pengkalan, ruler (1791–1808)

Timor

Colony, 1702–1975
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Vietnam

  • Po Saktirai da putih, King (1695–1728)
  • Po Ganvuh da putih, King (1728–1730)
  • Po Thuttirai, King (1731–1732)
  • Po Rattirai, King (1735–1763)
  • Po Tathun da moh-rai, King (1763–1765)
  • Po Tithuntirai da paguh, King (1765–1780)
  • Po Tithuntirai da parang, King (1780–1781)
  • Chei Krei Brei, King (1783–1786)
  • Po Tithun da parang, King (1786–1793)
  • Po Lathun da paguh, King (1793–1799)
  • Po Chong Chan, King (1799–1822)

South[edit]

Afghanistan

Sri Lanka

Colony, 1656–1796
For details see the Dutch Republic under Western Europe

West[edit]

Bahrain

Cyprus

Iran

Iraq

Israel

Jordan

Kuwait

Lebanon

Oman

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

  • Sa'dun bin Muhammad, Emir (1691–1722)
  • Ali bin Muhammad, Emir (1722–1736)
  • Suleiman bin Muhammad, Emir (1736–1752)
  • Urayar bin Dajeen bin Saadoun, Emir (1752–1774)
  • Bateen Bin Urayer, Emir (1775–1793)
  • Dajeen bin Urayer, Emir (1774–1774)
  • Sa'dun bin Urayer, Emir (1774–1786)
  • Dwaihis Bin Urayer, Emir (1786–1789)
  • Muhammad Bin Urayer, Emir (1786–1789)
  • Abdul Mohsen bin Sadah, Emir (1786–1791)
  • Zaid bin Urayer, Emir (1789–1793)
  • Barak bin Abdul Mohsen Al-Sadah, Emir (1793–1796)

Syria

Turkey

United Arab Emirates

Yemen

  • Daha, Amir (18th century)
  • Yaslam ibn Daha, Amir (?)
  • `Ali ibn Yaslam, Amir (?)
  • `Amm Dayb ibn `Ali al-Yaslami al-`Awlaqi, Amir (?)
  • Munassar, Sultan (18th century)
  • al-Hadi ibn Salih al-Wahidi, Sultan (c.1670–1706)
  • al-Hasan ibn al-Hadi al-Wahidi, Sultan (1706–1766)
  • al-Husayn ibn al-Hasan al-Wahidi, Sultan (1766–1771)
  • Sa`id ibn al-Hasan al-Wahidi, Sultan (1771–1771)
  • Ahmad ibn al-Hadi al-Wahidi, Sultan (1771–1810)
  • Hasan, Amir (?)
  • Ghalib, Amir (c.1750–1800)
  • Hussein, Amir (c.1800–1820)
  • Badr ibn Dscha'far al-Kathir, Sultan (1690–1707)
  • 'Abdllah ibn Badr al-Kathir, Sultan (1707–1725)
  • 'Amr ibn Badr al-Kathir, Sultan (1725–1760)
  • Ahmad ibn 'Amr al-Kathir, Sultan (1760–1800)
  • Muhsin ibn Ahmad al-Kathir, Sultan (1800–1830)
  • al-Fadl I ibn 'Ali al-Sallami al-'Abdali, Sultan (1728–1742)
  • 'Abd al-Karim I ibn al-Fadl al-'Abdali, Sultan (1742–1753)
  • 'Abd al-Hadi ibn 'Abd al-Karim al-'Abdali, Sultan (1753–1775)
  • al-Fadl II ibn 'Abd al-Karim al-'Abdali, Sultan (1775–1791)
  • Ahmad I ibn 'Abd al-Karim al-'Abdali, Sultan (1791–1827)
  • `Afrar al-Mahri, Sultan (c.1750–1780)
  • Taw`ari ibn `Afrar al-Mahri, Sultan (c.1780–1800)
  • Qahtan ibn Afif, ruler (1700–1720)
  • Sayf ibn Qahtan al-Afifi, ruler (1720–1740)
  • Ma`awda ibn Sayf al-Afifi, ruler (1740–1760)
  • Ghalib ibn Ma`awda al-Afifi, ruler (1760–1780)
  • Abd al-Karim ibn Ghalib al-Afifi, ruler (1780–1800)
  • Ali I ibn Ghalib al-Afifi, ruler (1800–1841)
  • `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Harhara, Sheikh (c.1730–1735)
  • Ahmad ibn `Ali Al Harhara, Sheikh (c.1735–1750)
  • Salih ibn Ahmad Al Harhara, Sheikh (c.1750–1780)
  • `Umar ibn Salih Al Harhara, Sheikh (c.1780–1800)

Europe[edit]

Balkans[edit]

Croatia

part of the Habsburg Monarchy, also part of the Lands of the Hungarian Crown
House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg-Lorraine

Greece

Montenegro

British Isles[edit]

Great Britain and Ireland

Central[edit]

  • Leopold I, Emperor Elect, King (1658–1705)
  • Joseph I, Emperor Elect (1705–1711), King (1690–1711)
  • Charles VI, Emperor Elect, King (1711–1740)
  • Charles VII, Emperor Elect, King (1742–1745)
  • Francis I, Emperor Elect (1745–1765), King (1745–1764)
  • Joseph II, Emperor Elect (1765–1790), King (1764–1790)
  • Leopold II, Emperor Elect, King (1790–1792)
  • Francis II, Emperor Elect, King (1792–1806)

Austria

Habsburg monarchs ruled under numerous simultaneous titles
Habsburg-Lorraine monarchs ruled under numerous simultaneous titles

Bohemia

Hungary

Poland

East[edit]

  • Peter I, Tsar (1682–1721), Emperor (1721–1725)

Ukraine

1772–1795, crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy
1795–1804, kingdom of the Habsburg Monarchy

Nordic[edit]

Denmark–Norway

Sweden

Southcentral[edit]

Italy: Holy Roman Empire

Sister Republic of the French First Republic, 1797–1802
For details see France under western Europe
client republic of France, 1797–1805
For details see France under western Europe

Italy: Southern

Malta

British protectorate, 1800–1813
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Southwest[edit]

Andorra

Portugal

Spain

West[edit]

France

French

Low Countries

Caucasus[edit]

Azerbaijan

  • Javad, Khan (1786–1804)
  • Shaykh Ali Agha, Khan (1791–1806)
  • Husayn, Khan (1806–1816)

Georgia

direct Persian rule (1676–1703)

Russia: Dagestan

  • Umma, Khan (1774–1801)
  • Surkhay ibn Muhammad, Khan (1789–1820)
  • Aslan ibn Shakhmardan, Khan (1820–1836)
  • Nutsal-Aga ibn Aslan, Khan (1836–1836)
  • Muhammad-Mirza ibn Aslan, Khan (1836–1838)
  • Ummu Kulsum-Beke, Khan (1838–1841)
  • Abdurrahman ibn Umar, Khan (1841–1847)
  • Aglar ibn Umar, Khan (1847–1859)
  • Jafar ibn Aglar, Khan (1877–1877)

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

Australia

British colony, 1788–1900
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Pacific[edit]

Chile

  • Te Ravarava (Terava Rara), King (?)
  • Tehitehuke, King (?)
  • Te Rahai or Terahai, King (?)
  • Te Huke, King (?)
  • Tuu, from Mata Nui (Ko Tuu?), King (c.1770)
  • Hotu Iti, King (c.1773)
  • Honga, King (?)
  • Te Kena, King (?)

French Polynesia

  • Manuka, King (1767–1810)

New Zealand: Niue

  • Puni-mata, Patu-iki (c.1700–?)
  • Patua-valu, Patu-iki (?)

Tonga

  • Kafoamotalau, King (?)
  • Tuʻionukulave, King (?)
  • Silivakaifanga, King (?)
  • Fuatakifolaha, King (?)
  • Tupoulahi, King (?)
  • Maealiuaki, King (?)
  • Mumui, King (?)
  • Toafunaki, King (c.1790)
  • Mulikihaʻamea, King (?)

United Kingdom: Pitcairn

United States: Hawaii

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Delmond offers 1734–1748 for Koro's reign and 1748–1763 for that of Alfa.[15] More recent historians reverse the order of their rule; it is not clear whether the given regnal dates are accurate.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Joyce (M.A.) & Torday (E.), Notes ethnographiques sur les peuples communément appelés Bakuba, ainsi que sur les peuplades apparentées, les Bushongo. Bruxelles 1910 ;page 17–19
  2. ^ Werner J. Lange, History of the Southern Gonga (Southwestern Ethiopia) (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1982), p. 64.
  3. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lxxxix
  4. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lxxxvif
  5. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lvi. Amnon Orent, "Refocusing on the History of Kafa prior to 1897: A Discussion of Political Processes" in African Historical Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2. (1970), p. 268.
  6. ^ Information about pre-Oromo kings from Werner J. Lange, History of the Southern Gonga (Southwestern Ethiopia), (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1982), pp. 28–30.
  7. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), pp. lxv – lxvii.
  8. ^ Njoku, Raphael (2013). The History of Somalia. ISBN 9780313378577.
  9. ^ Mukhtar, Mohamed Haji (25 February 2003). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. p. 26. ISBN 9780810866041. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
  10. ^ a b MacMichael, H. A. (1922). "Appendix I: The Chronology of the Fung Kings". A History of the Arabs in the Sudan and Some Account of the People Who Preceded Them and of the Tribes Inhabiting Dárfūr. Volume II. Cambridge University Press. p. 431. OCLC 264942362. |volume= has extra text (help)
  11. ^ a b Holt, Peter Malcolm (1999). "Genealogical Tables and King-Lists". The Sudan of the Three Niles: The Funj Chronicle 910–1288 / 1504–1871. Islamic History and Civilization, 26. Leiden: BRILL. pp. 182–186. ISBN 978-90-04-11256-8.
  12. ^ Hamaj Regents of the Funj Sultanate of Sinnar, accessed 2/1/2017
  13. ^ Ben-Amos (1995). The Art of Benin Revised Edition. p. 32.
  14. ^ a b Madiéga 1982, p. 117,123.
  15. ^ a b c Delmond, Paul (1949). "Esquisse geographique du Gourra central: Le cercle de Dori (Haute-Volta)". Notes Africaines (43): 57–60.
  16. ^ a b c d e Madiéga 1982, p. 123.
  17. ^ Madiéga 1982, p. 117.
  18. ^ Tilho, J. (1911), Documents Scientifiques de la Mission Tilho (1906–1909) (in French), 2, Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, pp. 505–510
  19. ^ "Nigeria: Traditional polities". Rulers.Org. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
  20. ^ "Traditional States of Nigeria". World Statesmen. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
  21. ^ Dates calculated on the basis of Lange, Diwan, 80-94.
  22. ^ Aimiuwu, O.E.I. Ashipa: the first Oba of Lagos. Nigeria Magazine, Issues 100–104, Government of Nigeria 1969. pp. 624–627. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  23. ^ Slavery and the Birth of an African City. p. 29.
  24. ^ Plainsail. "Erelu Abiola Docemo Foundation". eraffoundation.org.
  25. ^ "LAGOS". iinet.net.au. Archived from the original on 2017-05-17. Retrieved 2015-03-03.
  26. ^ Adewunmi Elegbede. "Kingdoms of Nigeria, The Nigerian Database of Rulers, Kings, Kingdoms, Political and Traditional Leaders". kingdomsofnigeria.com.
  27. ^ a b Slavery and the Birth of an African City. p. 46.
  28. ^ Ojo, Olatunji; Hunt, Nadine (2012-09-15). Slavery in Africa and the Caribbean: A History of Enslavement and Identity Since the 18th Century. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9781780761152.
  29. ^ Barry, Boubacar, "Le royaume du Waalo": le Sénégal avant la conquête, Karthala, 1985, p 317, ISBN 2865371417
  30. ^ a b "John Hancock". History.com. Aug 21, 2018. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  31. ^ "Henry Laurens". Charles Pickney National Historic Site. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  32. ^ "John Jay". History.com. Aug 21, 2018. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  33. ^ a b "Samuel Huntington Governor of Connecticut, 1786–1796". Museum of Connecticut History. 2015-08-14. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  34. ^ Bomboy, Scott (March 19, 2019). "Thomas McKean: A Founding Father with a double life". National Constitution Center.org. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  35. ^ Longley, Robert (Feb 28, 2019). "Was John Hanson the Real First President of the United States?". ThoughtCo. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  36. ^ Stanley, Bill. "Elias Boudinot". Bill Stanley and the Forgotten Fathers. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  37. ^ "Governor Thomas Mifflin". Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. August 25, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  38. ^ "Richard Henry Lee Biography". Biography.com. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  39. ^ "Nathaniel Gorham, Massachusetts". Constitutin Day.com. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  40. ^ "President Arthur St. Clair". Arthur St. Clair.com. October 26, 2012. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  41. ^ Stanley, Bill. "Cyrus Griffin". Bill Stanley and the Forgotten Fathers. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  42. ^ "George Washington". The White House.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  43. ^ "John Adams". The White House.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  44. ^ László Karoly (14 November 2014). A Turkic Medical Treatise from Islamic Central Asia: A Critical Edition of a Seventeenth-Century Chagatay Work by Subḥān Qulï Khan. BRILL. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-90-04-28498-2.
  45. ^ Orvostörténeti Közlemények: Communicationes de historia artis medicinae. Könyvtár. 2006. p. 52.
  46. ^ Nil Sarı; International Society of the History of Medicine (2005). Otuz Sekizinci Uluslararası Tıp Tarihi Kongresi Bildiri Kitabı, 1-6 Eylül 2002. Türk Tarih Kurumu. p. 845. ISBN 9789751618252.
  47. ^ Hall (1981), p. 972; Stokvis, Sultan (1888); Truhart (2003), p. 1228–9..
  48. ^ Stokvis (1888); Sulendraningrat (1985); Sunardjo (1996), p. 81.
  49. ^ a b c d Stokvis (1888); Sulendraningrat (1985); Sunardjo (1996), p. 81.
  50. ^ Sutherland (1973–1974).
  51. ^ Nagtegaal (1995); Werdisastra (1996).
  52. ^ Nagtegaal (1996); Sutherland (1973–1974).
  53. ^ De Graaf & Pigeaud (1974), p. 179–84.
  54. ^ De Graaf (1949), p. 483; Truhart (2003), p. 1232
  55. ^ De Graaf (1949), p. 483; Truhart (2003), p. 1233
  56. ^ De Graaf (1949), p. 483; Truhart (2003), p. 1233–4.
  57. ^ L.J. van Dijk, 'De zelfbesturende landschappen in de Residentie Timor en Onderhoorigheden', Indische Gids 47 1925 & 56 1934.
  58. ^ a b "Facts about Sonbai Kecil and Sonbai Besar by Hans Hagerdal". Archived from the original on 2011-07-15. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
  59. ^ Coolhaas, W.Ph. (1923) "Kronijk van het rijk Batjan", Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 63.
  60. ^ The pedigree and chronology of the sultans is only partly known; see Schurhammer, F. (1973–1982) Francis Xavier; His Life, His Times, Vol. I–IV. Rome: Jesuit Historical Institute; Jacobs, Hubert (1974–1984) Documenta Malucensia, Vol. I–III. Rome: Jesuit Historical Society; Fraassen, c.van (1987) Ternate, de Molukken en de Indonesische Archipel. Leiden: Leiden University (PhD Thesis).
  61. ^ Katoppo, Elvianus (1957) Nuku, Sulthan Sadul Djehad Muhammad el Mabus Amirudin Sjah, Kaitjili Paparangan, Sulthan Tidore. Kilatmadju Bina Budhaja; Widjojo, Muridan (2009) The revolt of Prince Nuku: Cross-cultural alliance-making in Maluku, c.1780–1810. Leiden: Brill. The exact genealogy of the rulers before the mid-17th century is not known by the local historical tradition; for the known details, see Clercq, F.S.A. de (1890) Bijdragen tot de kennis der Residentie Ternate. Leiden: Brill.
  62. ^ "Dato' Yazid Mat, Page 4 and 5".
  63. ^ Markó 2000, p. 95.
  64. ^ Markó 2000, pp. 113-115.
  65. ^ Azerbaijani Soviet Encyclopedia, Baku, 1983, vol. 7, p. 176
  66. ^ George A. Bournoutian (1998). Russia and the Armenians of Transcaucasia, 1797–1889. p. 516. ISBN 1568590687.
  67. ^ Martijn Theodoor Houtsma; et al. (eds.). "Nakhcuwan". Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Publishers. OCLC 8096647.